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Confusion effect

One of the evolutionary techniques used by animals. There are types of collective activities performed in order to confuse the predator and increase the chances of survival.

The examples of confusion effect are: penguins raft jumping into the water or little auks escaping in a big group from the predatory glaucous gull.

Photo: Flying little auks, Spitsbergen, author: Piotr Andryszczak

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